Mahatma Gandhi: Father of Nation

Abhishek Ranavat

Mahatma Gandhi, also known as the "Father of the Nation," was an Indian independence activist who became a symbol of peace, non-violent resistance, and civil rights around the world. His life and teachings continue to inspire millions of people to this day.

Early Life and Education:

Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi was born on October 2nd, 1869, in Porbandar, a small coastal town in western India. He was born into a Hindu merchant caste family, and his father was a high-ranking official in the local government.

Gandhi was a shy and introverted child who showed little interest in schoolwork. Despite this, he excelled academically and earned a scholarship to study law in London, England. It was during his time in London that Gandhi began to develop his political and social consciousness, and he became increasingly aware of the injustices faced by Indian people under British colonial rule.

Activism and Leadership:

After completing his studies, Gandhi returned to India and became involved in the Indian National Congress, a political party that was working to gain independence from British rule. He quickly rose to prominence within the party and became one of its key leaders.

Gandhi's approach to political activism was based on the principle of non-violent resistance, or "satyagraha." He believed that peaceful protest and civil disobedience were more effective tools for social change than violent revolution. Throughout his life, Gandhi led a number of high-profile campaigns, including the Salt March, a peaceful protest against the British monopoly on salt production in India, and the Quit India movement, which called for British withdrawal from India.

In addition to his political activism, Gandhi was also a champion of social justice and human rights. He fought against discrimination based on caste, religion, and gender, and worked to promote greater equality and justice for all people.

Legacy:

Gandhi's life and teachings continue to inspire people around the world to this day. His commitment to non-violence, social justice, and civil rights has had a profound impact on movements for change, from the American Civil Rights movement to the Arab Spring.

Gandhi's legacy is also evident in the ongoing struggles for human rights and social justice around the world. His message of peace, love, and compassion continues to resonate with people of all ages and backgrounds, and his life serves as a reminder that one person can make a difference in the world.

In conclusion, Mahatma Gandhi was an extraordinary leader who dedicated his life to the pursuit of justice, freedom, and equality for all people. His legacy is a testament to the power of non-violent resistance and the importance of standing up for what is right, even in the face of adversity. Gandhi's teachings continue to inspire people around the world to this day, and his message of love, compassion, and social justice remains as relevant as ever.

Here is a comprehensive list of some of the important movements led by Mahatma Gandhi:

  1. Champaran Satyagraha (1917): This was one of Gandhi's first major movements in India. He supported the farmers in the Champaran district of Bihar who were forced to grow indigo by British landlords and were subjected to oppressive conditions. Gandhi organized protests and strikes, and eventually succeeded in getting the British to concede to the demands of the farmers.

  2. Kheda Satyagraha (1918): In Kheda district of Gujarat, farmers were facing a severe crop failure and were unable to pay taxes to the British. Gandhi initiated a Satyagraha campaign urging the government to waive the taxes. Through protests, strikes, and civil disobedience, the movement gained widespread support and ultimately resulted in the government relaxing the tax collection.

  3. Ahmedabad Textile Strike (1918): This was a labor strike led by Gandhi in the textile mills of Ahmedabad, Gujarat, demanding better working conditions and higher wages for workers. Gandhi supported the workers through strikes, hunger strikes, and negotiations with the mill owners, and eventually, the workers' demands were partially met.

  4. Rowlatt Satyagraha (1919): In protest against the repressive Rowlatt Act, which allowed for the arrest and detention of Indians without trial, Gandhi called for a nationwide Satyagraha campaign. The movement involved strikes, hartals (shutdowns), and protests across India, which were met with brutal repression by the British, resulting in the Jallianwala Bagh massacre in Amritsar.

  5. Bardoli Satyagraha (1928): In Bardoli district of Gujarat, farmers were facing unjust tax hikes by the British. Gandhi initiated a Satyagraha campaign and led the farmers in a non-violent resistance movement against the oppressive tax policies. The movement resulted in the British government eventually rolling back the tax increases.

  6. Harijan Movement (1932-1948): As an advocate for social equality, Gandhi launched the Harijan Movement, also known as the movement for the upliftment of untouchables or Dalits, who were considered the lowest caste in the Indian social hierarchy. He fought against untouchability, discrimination, and social ostracism of Dalits, and worked towards their empowerment, education, and social integration.

  7. Individual Satyagraha (1940-1941): When the Quit India Movement was launched in 1942, Gandhi was arrested along with other Congress leaders. As a response, he initiated the Individual Satyagraha, where he encouraged individuals to peacefully protest against British rule in their own capacities, leading to widespread acts of civil disobedience across India.

  8. Post-Quit India Movement (1942-1944): After the Quit India Movement was called off due to the widespread arrests of Congress leaders, Gandhi continued to work towards India's independence through various means, including negotiations with the British, writing letters to officials, and undertaking fasts unto death to advocate for communal harmony and peace.

These are some of the important movements led by Mahatma Gandhi during India's struggle for independence and his broader social justice campaigns. Gandhi's non-violent methods, civil disobedience, and Satyagraha philosophy inspired millions and played a pivotal role in India's journey towards freedom from British rule.


Mahatma Gandhi was a prolific writer and penned numerous books during his lifetime. Some of his most famous books include:

  1. Autobiography: The Story of My Experiments with Truth: This is perhaps Gandhi's most well-known book, where he recounts his life experiences, struggles, and his evolving philosophy of nonviolence, civil disobedience, and Satyagraha (truth-force). It is considered a classic and provides insights into Gandhi's personal and political journey.

  2. Hind Swaraj or Indian Home Rule: Published in 1909, this book outlines Gandhi's vision of India's independence and self-rule. In it, he critiques modern civilization, including British rule in India, and advocates for India's self-sufficiency and autonomy based on his principles of nonviolence and Satyagraha.

  3. My Experiments with Truth: This book is a condensed version of Gandhi's autobiography and is widely read for its reflections on his spiritual, social, and political experiments, as well as his struggles and achievements.

  4. Key to Health: Written in 1948, this book focuses on Gandhi's principles of health and hygiene, including diet, exercise, and natural remedies. It emphasizes the importance of self-discipline, self-restraint, and living a simple and healthy lifestyle.

  5. Constructive Programme: Its Meaning and Place: This book discusses Gandhi's concept of "Constructive Programme," which emphasizes building positive social, economic, and political structures through nonviolent means. It lays out his ideas on education, rural development, village self-sufficiency, and social reform.

  6. The Bhagavad Gita According to Gandhi: In this book, Gandhi offers his interpretation and commentary on the Bhagavad Gita, a sacred Hindu scripture. He draws upon his own experiences and beliefs to reflect on the spiritual and moral teachings of the Gita and their practical application in everyday life.

  7. Satyagraha in South Africa: This book documents Gandhi's early years in South Africa and his experiences with discrimination, racism, and his development of the concept of Satyagraha. It provides insights into his activism and philosophy during his formative years as a leader and activist.

These are just a few examples of the many books written by Mahatma Gandhi, who was known for his profound writings on various topics related to spirituality, politics, social issues, and personal development. His writings continue to inspire people around the world and are considered valuable contributions to the fields of philosophy, politics, and social justice.


Father of Nation