Vitamins and Minerals :Deficiencies ,Cure or its treatment

Abhishek Ranavat


 Vitamins: Vitamins are organic molecules required for metabolic reactions. They usually cannot be made by the body and are needed in trace amounts. Vitamins may act as enzyme cofactors or coenzymes.  

  • There are 13 different vitamins that have been identified as important nutrients for humans.
  • Vitamins are grouped as water-soluble and fat-soluble
    • The fat-soluble vitamins are vitamins A, D, E, and K. 
    • The water-soluble vitamins include vitamin B and the vitamin C. 

List of Vitamins, Scientific Name and food sources

Common Name Scientific Name Food Sources
Vitamin A (Fat-soluble) Retinol Green leafy vegetables, tomatoes, oranges, guava, milk,carrots, broccoli
Vitamin B1 (Water-soluble) Thiamine Fresh fruits, corn, cashew nuts, potatoes, peas, wheat, milk, etc.
Vitamin B2 (Water-soluble) Riboflavin Bananas, grapes, mangoes,pyoghurt, milk, mushrooms, etc.
Vitamin B3 (Water-soluble) Niacin Meat, eggs, fish, milk products, guava, mushroom, peanuts, cereals etc.
Vitamin B5 (Water-soluble) Pantothenic Acid Meat,egg yolk,fish, chicken, milk, yoghurt, mushrooms etc.
Vitamin B6 (Water-soluble) Pyridoxine Pork, chicken, fish, bread, eggs, vegetables, soya beans, etc.
Vitamin B7 (Water-soluble) Biotin Walnuts, peanuts, cereals, milk, salmon, pork, mushroom, avocados etc.
Vitamin B9 (Water-soluble) Folic Acid Citrus fruits, green leafy vegetables, whole grains, legumes, beets, etc.
Vitamin B12 (Water-soluble) Cobalamin Fish, meat, poultry, eggs, milk, etc.
Vitamin C (Water-soluble) Ascorbic acid orange,grapefruit, broccoli, goat milk
Vitamin D (Fat-soluble) Calciferol Fish, beef, cod liver oil, egg yolk, liver, chicken breast and cereals.
Vitamin E (Fat-soluble) Tocopherol Potatoes, pumpkin, guava, mango, milk, nuts and seeds.
Vitamin K (Fat-soluble) Phytonadione Tomatoes, broccoli, mangoes, grapes,beef

Types of Vitamins Deficiency of Diseases
A (Retinol) Night blindness
B1 (Thiamine) Beri-beri
B2 (Riboflavin) Retarded growth, bad skin
B3 (Niacin) Dementia ,Skin Disease, Diarrhoea
B5 (Pantothenic acid) Fatigue, Muscle Cramp, Pellagra
B6 (Pyridoxine) Nausea,Kidney Stones
B12 (Cyanocobalamin) Anaemia
C (Ascorbic acid) Scurvy
D (Calciferol) Rickets, Osteomalacia
E (Tocopherol) Problems of reproductive system
K (Phylloquinone) Excessive bleeding due to injury
Types of Minerals Deficiency of Diseases
Calcium Brittle bones, excessive bleeding
Phosphorus Bad teeth and bones
Iron Anaemia
Iodine Goitre, enlarged thyroid gland
Copper Low appetite, retarded growth

VITAMIN A (Retinol) 

  • Carrots are the most popular and rich source of Vitamin A.
  • Green leafy vegetables are another rich source of Vitamin A.
  •  The liver from any animal is the most effective nonvegetarian source of Vitamin A .
  • Consuming about 2 egg yolks per day provides the body with all of the Vitamin A it requires. It does contain cholesterol, but the body requires a small amount of cholesterol for various functions too.


  • Maintains eye health 
  • Promotes growth and development, maintains healthy bones and teeth 
  • Enhances the protection and regeneration of cells and mucous membrane 
  • Maintains healthy respiratory and intestinal tracts
  •   Maintain healthy hair, nails and skin 

Symptoms of Deficiency - 

  • Night blindness, dry eyes 
  • Dry skin
  • Stomach discomfort
  • Poor growth 
  • Weak bones and teeth 


 Vitamin B play a vital role in maintaining good health and well-being. As the building blocks of a healthy body, B vitamins have a direct impact on your energy levels, brain function, and cell metabolism.

VITAMIN B1 (Thymine)

  •  Source - Sprouts, yeast Deficiency 
  • disease - Beri-beri

VITAMIN B2 (Riboflabin) 

  • Source - Sprout, present in cow's milk(yellowish)
  •  Deficiency disease - Cheilosis, ulceration

Niacin (Vitamin B3) 

Having enough niacin, or vitamin B3, in the body is important for general good health. As a treatment, higher amounts of niacin can improve cholesterol levels.

vitamin B5

  • It helps produce energy by breaking down fats and carbohydrates. It also promotes healthy skin, hair, eyes, and liver.
  • Vitamin B5 is also known as pantothenic acid, or Pantothenate. 
  • Vitamin B5 deficiency is extremely rare in people as pantothenic acid is found in nearly all foods. 

Vitamin B 6

Vitamin B 6 is a water-soluble vitamin present in three major chemical forms:
  • pyridoxine
  • pyridoxal
  • pyridoxamine 
  • A sufficient B6 consumption may lower the risk of heart disease.
  • B6 increases the amount of oxygen that haemoglobin carries.
  • B6 is necessary for the metabolism of red blood cells.
  • Vitamin B6 used in high doses might permanently harm the nerves.
  • Vitamin B6 is required by our bodies to break down protein.
  • B6 is required by the body to generate haemoglobin.
  • A type of anaemia can result from a lack of vitamin B6.
  • Important for immune system health is vitamin B6.
  • Vitamin B7(Biotin)

    A water-soluble vitamin, biotin is often referred to as vitamin H or vitamin B7. It aids in the body's metabolization of protein, carbs, and lipids. Water-soluble vitamins must be consumed daily because the body cannot store them.
    • Biotin, or vitamin B7, is needed to metabolize fats, carbohydrates, and protein.
    • Deficiency can lead to hair loss and skin problems, but it is rare.
    • Dietary sources include red meat, eggs, seeds, and nuts.
    • Supplements are unlikely to cause harm, but they are not proven to help with hair, skin, and nail health.

    Vitamin B9 (Folic acid)

    Of the eight B vitamins, vitamin B9, often known as folate or folic acid, is one. All B vitamins assist the body's process of converting food (carbohydrates) into the energy-producing fuel glucose.

    Folic acid deficiency can cause:-

    • Poor growth
    • Tongue inflammation
    • Gingivitis
    • Loss of appetite
    • Shortness of breath
    • Diarrhea
    • Irritability
    • Forgetfulness

    Vitamin B12 (Cobalamin)

    The creation of DNA and RNA, the body's genetic material, is aided by vitamin B12, which is a crucial nutrient for maintaining healthy nerve cells.

    Vitamin C (Ascorbic acid)

    Your body's natural defences can be strengthened by vitamin C, a potent antioxidant - 


    • Helps synthesize collagen; promotes the growth and repair of cells, gum, teeth, blood vessels and bones 
    • Helps healing after operation and injury 
    • Helps calcium and iron absorption
    •  Enhances immunity 

    VITAMIN D (Calciferol)=(Sunshine Vitamin) 

    The human body produces vitamin D as a response to sun exposure.

    Vitamin D deficiency in children can cause rickets, leading to a bowlegged appearance due to the softening of the bones. Similarly, in adults, vitamin D deficiency manifests as osteomalacia.

    VITAMIN E (Tocopherol)=Beauty Vitamin 

    • Vitamin E is a fat-soluble vitamin with several forms, but alpha-tocopherol is the only one used by the human body.
    • It is also known as Antisterility Vitamin. 
    • Vitamin E is even used to widen blood vessels, reducing the risk of blood clots.

    VITAMIN K (Phylloquinon)

    • Vitamin K is one of the fat-soluble vitamins. It helps with blood clotting.
    •  The major source of vitamin K is found in green plants.This form is called phylloquinone. 
    • Another form of vitamin K is made by bacteria living in the intestine. This form is called menaquinone.
    •  Vitamin K is used to prevent and treat certain blood clotting (coagulation) issues. 
    •  It’s also used to prevent severe bleeding (hemorrhagic disease) in newborns.

    Post a Comment


    Post a Comment (0)